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Matthew Gaines Matthew Gaines
Full Name: Matthew Washington Gaines
Date of birth: August 4, 1840
Date of death: June 11, 1900

Terms of Service top
Chamber District Dates of Service Legislatures Party City/County Note Counties in District
S 16 Feb 8, 1870 - Jan 13, 1874 12th (4) (5)   13th (1) (2) (3)   Radical Republican Brenham / Washington   Washington

(1) Entire Senate went up for reelection due to Senatorial redistricting. Act passed Apr. 24, 1873 [presented to Governor May 1, 1873 and became law without his signature], 13th Legislature, R.S., ch. 35, Apportionment Laws of Texas, 1836-1950, 1950.
(2) Republican. Directory of the Members of the Thirteenth Legislature of the State of Texas, 1873.
(3) "Returning radicals [to the 13th Legislature] were Thomas H. Baker, Webster Flanagan, S.W. Ford, Albert J. Fountain, Matthew Gaines, Phidello W. Hall, Henry Rawson, George T. Ruby, William A. Saylor, and Robert P. Tendick," p. 145. The Texas Senate: Volume II, Civil War to the Eve of Reform, 1861-1889, 1999.
(4) 12th Legislature, 1st C.S. - Drawing for Terms of Office, 5/2/1870, pp. 51-52. Drew 6-year term. Senate Journal.
(5) Party affiliation, Radical. Roster of members, 12th Legislature, 1870. Texas Almanac for . . . and Emigrant's Guide to Texas.
 
Biographical Notes and Resources top
Selected Newspaper articles
Resolutions and Journal entries
  • 77th Legislature, R.S., HR 753. Resolutions - Congratulatory and Honorary.
  • 79th Legislature, R.S., HR 589, paying tribute to African American legislators and constitutional convention delegates of 1868-1900. Resolutions - Congratulatory and Honorary.
  • 81st Legislature, R.S., HCR 81, paying tribute to African American legislators and constitutional convention delegates. Resolutions - Congratulatory and Honorary.
  • 85th Legislature, R.S., HR 452, celebrating Black History Month and honoring the leadership and vision of African American lawmakers. Resolutions - Congratulatory and Honorary.
  • 12th Legislature, Provisional Session - Mathew Gaines. Senate Journal.
  • 14th Legislature, Regular Session - Seth Shepard and Matthew Gaines election contest: Memorial of Shepard protesting the seating of Matthew Gaines, 3/17/1874, pp. 176-178. Presentation of Gaines' credentials, 3/20/1874, pp. 189-190. Shepard prevailed in election contest over Gaines, report of Committee on Privileges and Elections 3/24/1874, printed in journal 3/25/1874, pp. 207-217. Memorial of C.B. Francis, claiming to have been elected Senator from the 16th District, does not delay seating of the Hon. Seth Shepard as Senator from said district; Shepard qualified and was seated immediately, 3/26/1874, pp. 220-221, 225-226. Gaines never seated. Senate Journal.
  • Biographical Sketches
  • Portrait and biographical sketch: "Matt Gaines: Reconstruction politician," pp. 48-81. Black Leaders: Texans for Their Times, 1981.
  • Biographical information in Alwyn Barr, "Black Legislators of Reconstruction Texas," Volume 32, Number 4, December 1986, pp. 340-352. Civil War History.
  • Portrait and biographical sketch, Matthew (Matt) Gaines. Born Pineville, near Alexandria, Louisiana, 8/4/1840 or 1842, died Giddings, Texas, 6/11/1900. Forever Free: Nineteenth Century African-American Legislators and Constitutional Convention Delegates of Texas, 2002.
  • Mentioned in footnote 5, p. 264, Gideon Lincecum, 1793-1874: a Biography, by Lois Wood Burkhalter. "During the Reconstruction, Negroes found their military and political services in demand by the Texas Republican Party." Google Books.
  • GAINES, MATTHEW (1840-1900). Handbook of Texas Online.
  • Portrait, biographical information, and statements concerning the Matthew Gaines memorial at Texas A&M. Matthew Gaines Memorial Homepage.
  • Portrait, description of Senate speech, biographical sketch, and list of legislation authored by Gaines. Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants: a History of the Negro in Texas Politics from Reconstruction to Disfranchisement, 1935.
  • "Reconstructing a Legacy: The Trials and Accomplishments of Black Legislators in Post-Civil War Texas," by Michael Hurd, July 2021, pp. 68-71. Texas Highways.
  • Biographical sketch, background, and oratory of Matthew Washington Gaines, pp. 102-105. The Texas Senate: Volume II, Civil War to the Eve of Reform, 1861-1889, 1999.
  • Portrait, biographical sketch, and "Matthew Gaines: The Militant," pp. 19, 169-179. Birth date 8/4/1840; death date 6/11/1900. Through Many Dangers, Toils, and Snares: Black Leadership in Texas, 1868-1898, 2016.
  • Other Resources
  • Mentioned in Black Texans: a History of African Americans in Texas, 1528-1995, 1996.
  • Listing of Matthew Gaines' grandchildren provided by Ronnie Jackson, Jr., grandson of Monzella Brown; origin of paperwork unknown. Matthew Gaines Working File.
  • Mentioned in Chapter VI, "Black Belt Politics." The Negro in Texas, 1874-1900, 1971.
  • Mentioned, pp. 147-156. Time of Hope, Time of Despair: Black Texans During Reconstruction, 1981.
  • Photographs
  • Photograph. Matthew Gaines, 13th Legislature, DeGolyer Library, SMU, Lawrence T. Jones III Collection.
  • Photograph. Matthew Gaines, 13th Legislature, State Preservation Board
  • Photograph. Matthew Gaines, State Preservation Board
  • Composite Photographs on Display in the Capitol
  • 13th session composite photo of Senate and House members (Ground floor elevator vestibule, east wall. GW.V3). State Preservation Board.
  • Pictorial Monogram of the State Government of Texas 1873 (DeGolyer Library, SMU, Lawrence T. Jones III Collection). DeGolyer Library, SMU, Lawrence T. Jones III Collection..
  • Committee Informationtop
    13th R.S. - 1873
    Federal Relations  
    Immigration  
    Penitentiary  
    Roads, Bridges and Ferries  
    12th Adjourned - 1871
    Counties and County Boundaries  
    Elections  
    Indian Affairs and Frontier Protection  
    Journal Clerk (Chair) 
    Penitentiary  
    Privileges and Elections  
    12th R.S. - 1871
    Counties and County Boundaries  
    Elections  
    Indian Affairs and Frontier Protection  
    Penitentiary  
    Privileges and Elections  
    12th 1st C.S. - 1870
    Counties and County Boundaries  
    Elections  
    Indian Affairs and Frontier Protection  
    Penitentiary  
    Privileges and Elections  
    Public School Lands  
    12th Provisional - 1870
    Elections  
     

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